- Cancer Biology & Biomarkers
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- Contract Research, Clinical Trials and Outsourcing
- Drug Discovery
- Drug Targets
- Flow Cytometry
- Informatics & Lab Automation
- Ingredients, Excipients and Dosages
- Microbiology & RMMs
- NIR, PAT & QbD
- Raman Spectroscopy
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Dr Michael J Miller - Articles and news items
Issue 5 2013, Microbiology / RMMs / 22 October 2013 / Michael J. Miller, President, Microbiology Consultants, LLC and Suzan Mohammed Ragheb, Department of Biotechnology, The Nile Company for Pharmaceuticals and Chemical Industries
Rapid microbiological methods (RMM) have gained popularity and acceptance within a number of industry sectors, including food and beverages, diagnostics, environmental, personal care and pharmaceuticals. In recent years, many firms have successfully validated and implemented RMMs for a wide variety of applications. However, many geographic areas around the world still have not benefited from the advantages that RMMs afford, most notably the time to result for critical microbiological analyses. This is particularly true for clinical diagnostics and the detection of foodborne pathogens in developing countries.
The Encyclopedia of Rapid Microbiological Methods: The new fourth volume discusses technologies, regulatory acceptance and validation case studies
This is the second paper in our continuing series on Rapid Microbiological Methods (RMM) that will appear in European Pharmaceutical Review during 2013. As the editor for the Encyclopedia of Rapid Microbiological Methods, I provide a summary of the latest volume, which was published earlier this year. New case studies, regulatory guidance and novel technologies are highlighted, and encourage our industry to adopt new ways of performing microbiology assays across a wide range of applications.
Hot topics in rapid methods: revisions to validation guidance and real-time environmental monitoring
This is the sixth and final paper in our continuing series on Rapid Microbiological Methods (RMM) that have appeared in European Pharmaceutical Review during 2012. As many of you already know, I am keen on staying on top of recent developments in the world of rapid methods, and have used my own blog (http://blog.rapidmicromethods.com) to communicate technology advances and changes to regulatory and validation practices and expectations. In my final article of the year, I am providing an overview of two very interesting topics that have sparked additional discussions within the professional community: the proposed changes to USP’s informational chapter on the validation of alternative microbiological methods and real-time environmental monitoring.
Revision to USP Chapter <1223>: Method validation is the process used to confirm that an analytical procedure employed for a specific test is reliable, reproducible and suitable for its intended purpose. All analytical methods need to be validated prior to their introduction into routine use, and this is especially true for novel technology platforms such as RMMs.
Because many RMM technologies consist of a combination of instrumentation, software, consumables and reagents, in addition to specific detection, quantitative or identification methodologies, it is important to develop a comprehensive and holistic approach to the validation process to ensure that the entire RMM system is suitable for its intended use.
This is the fifth paper in our continuing series on Rapid Microbiological Methods (RMM) that will appear in European Pharmaceutical Review during 2012. As many of you know, I am always on the lookout for the next generation of rapid microbiological method (RMM) technologies and solutions. In this article, I have invited Noe Miyashita, a researcher from Hitachi Plant Technologies, to describe a novel ATP bioluminescence technology platform that she and her colleagues are currently working on. But in order to frame this discussion, it is appropriate to provide some background material on the fundamental basics of ATP bioluminescent methods.
ATP bioluminescence is the generation of light by a biological process, and is most recognised in the tails of the American firefly Photinus pyralis. First discovered in 1947 by William McElroy, he described the ATP bioluminescence reaction in which ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) is enzymatically consumed to produce light. Specifically, in the presence of the substrate luciferin, the enzyme luciferase will use the energy from ATP to oxidise luciferin and release photons (light at a wavelength of 562 nanometres). The photons can then be detected and measured by a luminometer equipped with a photomultiplier tube. Figure 1 provides an illustration of this chemical reaction.
Supplements / 24 September 2012 / Dr. Michael J. Miller
How the acceptance of rapid microbiological methods (RMMs) continues to be hampered by misconceptions, misunderstandings and myths.
Rapid micro methods and EMA’s post approval change management protocol.
Rapid sterility testing and the impact of recent changes to the US Code of Federal Regulations.
This is the fourth paper in our continuing series on Rapid Microbiological Methods (RMM) that will appear in European Pharmaceutical Review during 2012. Over the past few years, a number of professional meetings have focused on strategies and case studies for the validation and application of rapid microbiological methods (RMM). If you were able to attend one of these meetings, you probably found it encouraging and worthwhile listening to and speaking with end-users, regulators and vendors of the technologies. This year and next are no exception; scheduled conferences and training sessions within Europe and the US will provide the industry with a comprehensive overview and guidance on how to successfully implement RMMs. To give you a feel for what’s in store, this edition of our RMM series will highlight upcoming PDA and ECA RMM sessions. In addition, the last section will provide more information about the overall October 2012 PDA Global Conference on Pharmaceutical Microbiology, of which a number of RMM presentations will be delivered.
European Compliance Academy (ECA) Annual RMM Conference (December 2012):
This two-day conference offers you a unique opportunity to evaluate the new developments in RMM systems, to extend the current experi – ences in validation, as well as implementation of these systems within the pharmaceutical industry. Attendees will also learn about the expectations of the regulatory authorities and new developments with regard to regulatory requirements.
This is the third paper in our continuing series on Rapid Microbiological Methods (RMM) that will appear in European Pharmaceutical Review during 2012. Rapid sterility testing is one of a number of applications that novel microbiological technologies afford the pharmaceutical industry. RMM technologies have already been validated and implemented for both small and large molecule pharmaceuticals and ophthalmic products, in addition to cell therapy and tissue culture products, as an alternative to pharmacopeial sterility tests, and company success stories have been presented and published at numerous professional meetings and in a variety of scientific journals (please see the reference page at http://rapidmicromethods.com for the full titles). However, the industry as a whole has not embraced the use of rapid sterility testing as much as other microbiological applications, such as in-process bioburden, environmental monitoring and Microbial Limits testing. The reasons are varied, and have included concerns regarding return on investment, the extent of the validation plan and regulatory acceptance. Fortunately, recent changes in regulatory policy make it clear that RMMs for finished product sterility testing have a place in our industry, and it is the FDA that is leading the motivation for change.
In February 2008, the FDA published their draft guidance on the validation of growth-based RMMs for sterility testing of cellular and gene therapy products. The guidance addressed considerations for method validation and determining equivalence of an RMM to sterility assays described in Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 610.12 (21 CFR 610.12).
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