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Tony Cundell

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The role of water activity in the microbial stability of non-sterile pharmaceutical drug products

10 March 2015 | By

Aqueous, multiple-use, non-sterile drug products are susceptible to microbial contamination during their shelf life. To protect these products from this potential hazard to patients, they are formulated with antimicrobial preservatives. Other product attributes employed using the hurdle concept to prevent microbial contamination include: low pH, low redox potential, reduced storage…


Microbiology: Mould contamination in pharmaceutical drug products and medical devices

15 December 2013 | By

Invasive fungal infections associated with high mortality rates are common in hospital settings, especially in intensive care units where patients may be immune-compromised, subject to invasive procedures and treated aggressively with antibiotics. The most common nosocomial fungal infections in descending order are due to the genera Candida, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Fusarium…