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Henning Gieseler

 

The obstacle to developing an optimum placebo formulation for pharmaceutical freeze drying

18 January 2019 | By ,

Scale-up of pharmaceutical freeze-drying processes is cost and time consuming due to Quality by Design (QbD) requirements and novel compound costs or availability. The application of placebo formulations offers a promising way to improve drug development activities and save resources. Furthermore, placebos are used as a reference in clinical trials.…

The importance of being small: miniaturisation of freeze drying equipment

18 August 2017 | By ,

Developmental activities for freeze-dried products are dictated by the limited availability and high cost of newly developed active compounds, and by Quality-by-Design requirements. Laboratory-scale freeze dryers used for formulation and process development show an excessive variety of designs and instrumentation concepts, making scale-up activities a challenge. The development of miniaturised…