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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Articles and news items
Industry news / 3 March 2016 / Victoria White
AMRA Profiler is a cloud-based body composition measurement service, which uses images from a rapid, 6-minute MRI scan to deliver accurate, precise fat and muscle measurements…
Blaze Bioscience announces open enrollment for Phase 1 clinical trial of Tumour Paint BLZ-100 in children with brain cancer
Industry news / 4 June 2015 / Victoria White
Blaze Bioscience has announced open enrollment for the first clinical study of Tumour Paint BLZ-100 in children with brain cancer…
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique that is traditionally used as a diagnostic clinical imaging tool. However, there are now an increasing number of non-medial applications where MRI has seen unrivalled success. One of those areas is in its application to pharmaceutical research. The aim of this article is to briefly outline the quantitative nature of MRI and how it has been used recently to quantify dissolution phenomena in controlled drug delivery tablets under pharmacopeial conditions.
In modern pharmacotherapy, the effectiveness of a therapeutic treatment does not rely solely on the efficacy of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), but is also dependent upon a suitable dosage form or drug delivery device being available. In many ways, it is the drug delivery device itself that ensures the active drug is available at the site of action for the correct time and duration with appropriate drug concentration1. Drug delivery systems can be broadly divided into two categories according to their mechanisms of drug release: immediate release and modified release. Immediate release dosage forms, such as traditional painkillers, are relatively simple systems and are designed to release APIs instantaneously, i.e. when a fast therapeutic action is required. Modified release dosage forms, which are generally more suited to disease treatment, are generally designed to provide targeted / tailored drug release characteristics and a detailed knowledge of the spatio-temporal behaviour of the API is extremely important.
MRI is widely used for clinical diagnosis as well as in research areas such as preclinical drug discovery, clinical development and also in therapy monitoring. MRI allows non-invasive acquisition of tomographic images of soft tissue with high resolution and contrast. Furthermore, its ability to assess organ function in a broad sense renders this technique to a versatile tool to answer specific scientific questions such as drug actions in disease models. Imaging of patho-physiological mechanisms and molecular processes are primarily in the focus of MRI in drug research. Finally, MRI is translational and has thus the potential to bridge the gap between preclinical research on one hand and clinical development or therapy monitoring on the other.
The magnetic moment of some atomic nuclei and with this, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the basis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), was predicted in the 1920s by Wolfgang Pauli and successfully demonstrated by Felix Bloch and Edward Purcell in 1946. With the detection of the chemical shift, the technique developed to a powerful analytical method for elucidation of chemical structures. Only decades later, in 1973, Paul Lauterbur published the first image based on NMR signal1. The breakthrough of MRI came with the intro – duction of the gradient based imaging techniques shortly thereafter as developed by Sir Peter Mansfield2. All these persons were later honoured for their contributions to NMR and MRI with the Nobel Prize.
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