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Inhibition of mutant P53 tumour cells by medicinal plants

4 May 2016 | By Osuntokun Oludare Temitope and Ogunleye Adewale Joseph, Adekunle Ajasin University

The aetiology of tumours is attributed to changes in many internal (molecular) factors, most of which include mutations in several regulatory mechanisms and the loss of cell differentiation. Human isoforms of the p53 protein play a key role in maintaining genetic stability, functioning as active tumour suppressors. However, a mutation…

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Biomarkers for cancer treatment

22 October 2013 | By Amancio Carnero, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas

There is an urgent need to predict which treatment will report the most benefit to a patient with cancer. To that end, scientists are exploring any possible biomolecule in the organism that can mark each individual for its adequate treatment. If achieved, it will open a personalised medicine era.

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HOX genes: HOX transcription factors as biomarkers in cancer

19 October 2011 | By Richard Morgan, Postgraduate Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey

The HOX genes are a family of closely related transcription factors that help to define the identity of cells and tissues during embryonic development and which are also frequently deregulated in cancer, where they have been shown to promote cell survival and proliferation. The high level of cancer-associated HOX expression…

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Proteomics and target identification in oncology

16 February 2011 | By Hubert Hondermarck, Professor and head of U908 INSERM research unit – Growth factor signalling in breast cancer – functional proteomics, University of Lille

The recent progresses in the field of proteomics now enable large scale, high throughput, sensitive and quantitative protein analysis. Therefore, applying proteomics in clinical oncology becomes realistic. From the analysis of cell cultures to biological fluids and tumour biopsies, proteomic investigations of cancers are flourishing and new candidate biomarkers and…

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Next Generation Sequencing: Current realities in cancer biology

16 February 2011 | By Ross Sibson, Director of Research, Applied Cancer Biology Group, University of Liverpool

The rate of progress in molecular cell biological sciences has become dramatic. This is fuelled in part by developments in technology, none more so than in the field of nucleic acid sequencing. So-called Next Generation Sequencing Platforms promise to revolutionise our understanding of the importance of genetic differences on an…

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PCR and personalised cancer medicine

16 December 2010 | By Frank McCaughan, MRC Career Development Fellow, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology

The delivery of personalised medicine is a key goal of modern cancer medicine and refers to the tailoring of anticancer therapy to the molecular characteristics of an individual tumour. To facilitate personalised medicine, it is important to have robust and reproducible means of gaining molecular information about a patient’s cancer…

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Application of flow cytometry in drug discovery

16 December 2010 | By Dana Buckman, Senior Scientist, Biomarkers – Translational Research, Pfizer

Flow cytometry can be used to advance our understanding of diseases in multiple ways. Drug effects and dosages can be ascertained in vitro, along with patient selection based on mutations and antigen profiles. Within the Diagnostic Biomarkers group of Translational Research at Pfizer, we are utilising flow cytometry in conjunction…

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Targeted therapies in lung cancer and Biomarkers

16 December 2010 | By Wolfgang M. Brueckl & Joachim Ficker, Department of Internal Medicine 3, Lung Cancer Center and Thomas M. Mundel, Roche Parma AG

Despite innumerable clinical studies in the past three decades with lots of traditional chemotherapeutical drugs and drug combinations, survival in lung cancer has increased by far less than other entities. Research now focuses on inhibitors of tyrosine kinases which have been shown to have a central role in the development…

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Functional genomics as a tool for guiding personalised cancer treatment

29 October 2010 | By Roderick Beijersbergen, Group Leader Molecular Carcinogenesis, the Netherlands Cancer Institute

Improved understanding of the molecular alterations in cancer cells has fuelled the development of more specific and directed cancer therapies. However, it has become clear that response rates can be low due to confounding genetic alterations that render these highly specific therapies ineffective. As a result, the costs of cancer…

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MS-based clinical proteomics: biomarker discovery in men’s cancer

29 October 2010 | By Brian Flatley Dept of Chemistry, University of Reading, Reading and Harold Hopkins Dept of Urology, Royal Berkshire NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, Reading and Peter Malone Harold Hopkins Dept of Urology, Royal Berkshire NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, Reading and Rainer Cramer Dept of Chemistry, University of Reading, Reading

Each year, approximately 10,000 men in the UK die as a result of prostate cancer (PCa) making it the third most common cancer behind lung and breast cancer. Worldwide, more than 670,000 men are diagnosed every year with the disease. Current methods of diagnosis of PCa mainly rely on the…

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High content cell based primary screening for oncology targets – a perspective

25 June 2010 | By Peter Alcock, Colin Bath, Carolyn Blackett & Peter B. Simpson, Screening & Assay Sciences, Cancer Bioscience, AstraZeneca Alderley Park

Over the last 15 years, vendors have offered microscope-based instruments capable of producing images of fluorescent labelled components of cells grown in microtitre plates. These instruments are typically bundled with analysis software capable of defining the relative distribution of several fluorescent markers on a cell by cell basis1,2. As the…

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High-throughput PCR based diagnostics: Linking sample handling to molecular oncology risk groups

24 June 2010 | By Ehsan G. Karimiani, Stephan Mohr & Philip J. R. Day, University of Manchester

Cancer molecular pathology broadly relies on the comparison between diseased and normal tissues, with statistically validated differences revealing cancerassociated pathways. This approach, although comparatively one-dimensional, has been remarkably successful, enabling identification of many types of malignant biomarkers and providing the means to develop pharmaceutical agents directed against pertinent biological targets.…

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Novel medicines development for cancer treatment

24 June 2010 | By Hans Winkler, Global Head Oncology & Biomarker Programs, Ortho Biotech Oncology Research & Development, Johnson & Johnson

The pharmaceutical industry has reached a critical phase in its evolution. The cost and time to develop novel medicines has become unsustainable3. Reasons for this may include a much higher demand on evidence of safety and efficacy, rapidly increasing costs of contract research and the tremendous pressure on pricing and…