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Lyophilisation - Articles and news items
Issue 3 2016 / 30 June 2016 / Adrian Funke - Bayer Pharma AG / Reinhard Gross, Stephan Tosch and Albert Tulke - Bayer Technology GmbH
Process analytical technology (PAT), namely near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy, has already been shown to be a useful tool for monitoring, analysing and optimising the complex process of lyophilisation. The latter process is especially challenging in the case of biopharmaceutical formulations due to the instability of active ingredients, leading to special requirements with respect to optimal process control and reproducibility. Both these parameters are important factors affecting the product quality. Recent studies confirm the ability of NIR spectroscopy (NIRS) to provide insights into both drying phases of lyophilisation, that is, sublimation of ice and removal of adsorbed water…
In a pharmaceutical freeze drying process, it is mandatory to preserve product quality. This means that for a given formulation that has to be freeze dried, the temperature has to remain below a limit value corresponding to the eutectic temperature for a product that crystallises after freezing, with the goal of avoiding product melting, or to the collapse temperature for a product that remains amorphous at the end of the freezing stage, with the goal of avoiding dried cake collapse, as this could result in a product with unacceptable appearance, and it could cause some concerns during the drying process (e.g. lower sublimation flux and higher residual moisture). The denaturation of the active pharmaceutical ingredient is another issue that has to be accounted for when defining this limit temperature…
Issue 5 2012, Lyophilisation / 22 October 2012 / Henning Gieseler, Associate Professor at the Division of Pharmaceutics, University of Erlangen & CEO, GILYOS GmbH and Peter Stärtzel, Pharmaceutical Scientist, GILYOS GmbH
The stochastic nature of nucleation during the freezing step of the freeze-drying process has been regarded as a demerit in a process which is considered under rigorous control. The freezing performance of a product can impact its subsequent drying behaviour and the final product quality attributes. Hence, the idea to control this stochastic event and thus to directly influence the product morphology seems highly appealing. Sound understanding of the nature of nucleation and its link to drying performance, as well as the choice of a suitable technical concept, is of fundamental importance and the prerequisite to profit from the opportunities offered by controlled nucleation.
Freeze-drying is a commonly used method within the pharmaceutical industry. One of the key steps of the entire process is the initial freezing procedure. During freezing of an aqueous solution, the formation of ice does not start at the equilibrium freezing temperature, Tf (Figure 1, page 64). Instead, the solution shows supercooling below Tf until the first ice nuclei are formed at the nucleation temperature, Tn. Nucleation itself proceeds in a three-phase process. ‘Primary nucleation’ describes the point where initial crystal nuclei appear from molecular clusters exceeding a critical size1,2. The formed nuclei are further grown to ice crystals by secondary nucleation (also referred to as ‘crystallisation’) passing through the already nucleated volume1.
The underlying concept for the stabilisation of proteins during freeze drying is the formation of a glassy matrix in which the macromolecules remain isolated and immobilised. The concept relies on the so-called ‘vitrification hypothesis’ which assumes that the formation of an amorphous phase by lyoprotectants is mandatory to interact with the amorphous protein molecule. The use of lyoprotectants has also been found to be beneficial to preserve the original particle size distribution of nanoparticles during freeze drying. Until today, it has been speculated that the predominant mechanism to suppress physical instabilities of such colloidal particle systems is their embedment in a rigid glass. Today, there are various types of colloidal particles used in drug development, and sometimes the scientific literature gives evidence that glass formation was not necessarily required for stabilisation during freezing thawing or even freeze drying. The purpose of this article is therefore to briefly provide the latest insight into potential stabilisation mechanisms when freeze drying nanoparticles, a key knowledge for rational formulation and process design for such systems.
Pharmaceutical freeze-drying is used to stabilise delicate drugs which are typically unstable in solution over a longer shelf life. The liquid formulation is converted into a solid, highly porous cake which can be easily reconstituted prior to administration. The majority of freeze-dried products in the pharmaceutical industry are used for parenteral application. This route of administration demands high quality for both the drug product and the primary packaging material. Today, glass vials are routinely used for freeze-dried products as they provide some indispensable characteristics. Depending on glass composition, surface treatment, processing and geometry, a vast number of different glass vials are commercially available for customers. Selection of the optimum vial for a given product seems to become more and more difficult as manufacturers of moulded and tubing glass have refined their products over the last decades to fulfil market needs.
During the past 10-15 years, close attention has been paid to the development of optimal lyophilization cycles for different types of pharmaceuticals1-4. Recent advances in process control, such as the Smart Freeze-DryerTM technology or similar approaches,5-7 make cycle development a routine procedure. The attention of many researchers has shifted to the aspects of cycle transfer and scale up that still require significant investment in understanding the differences in lyophilization processes between laboratory and commercial dryers8-14. Conducting numerous experiments in an attempt to demonstrate that a laboratory cycle is not only optimal but also robust, requires significant material and time investment. Mathematical modelling of lyophilization processes proved to be a very useful tool, not only for cycle development15-19 but also for cycle transfer and scale up11,14. The same mathematical approach (as discussed in experiment14) was applied to the process tolerances design and estimation of cycle robustness in regard to the product temperature.
Almost 60 years have elapsed since freeze-drying/lyophilization was introduced on an industrial scale. Developed initially for the rapid delivery of human blood plasma on the World’s battle fields, lyophilization gained its credentials with the massive production of penicillin under the guidance of the late Nobel Laureate Sir Ernst Boris Chain.
Issue 4 2005, Past issues / 11 November 2005 / Michael Wiggenhorn, Gerhard Winter, Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University and Ingo Presser, Boehringer Ingelheim
Freeze drying is a widely used method to stabilise protein pharmaceuticals. The stability of proteins and the biological activity can be influenced by several factors, which may lead to conformational changes and to denaturation, aggregation or absorption to surfaces1.
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