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Applications in target ID and validation

11 November 2005 | By Oliver C. Steinbach, Head of Department, Technology Management, ALTANA Pharma AG

RNAi technology provides the ‘loss of function’ approach, which has been widely used in the last couple of years for analysis of gene function, and in drug discovery for identification and validation of potential drug target candidates. This technology is now widely applied for functional screens in order to identify…

Meeting the challenge with a new facility

11 November 2005 | By EPR

The conclusion of the Genome Sequencing Project – far from providing the solution to the problem of human disease – has created further questions that had not previously been considered. Hence, the age of genomics has initiated the need to examine the body’s real biochemical actors: proteins, to learn about…

Options for quantitative analysis by real-time PCR

11 November 2005 | By Gareth Elvidge, PhD, Genomics Group, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford

The expansion of microarray-based gene expression studies has led to an increase in demand for gene-specific PCR-based methods for independent validation of results. Although a number of technologies are available to meet this requirement the most popular is currently real-time PCR.

A new approach to ion channel hit identification

11 November 2005 | By Martin J. Main, Karen Jones, Biological Chemistry, AstraZeneca R&D, UK, Mats A. Svensson, Dirk Weigelt and Markus Haeberlein, Chemistry, AstraZeneca R&D, Sweden

Advances in assay technology are driving an exciting new era in ion channel drug discovery. Here, we present a case study describing the use of computational chemistry and focussed library screening to drive rapid hit identification.

A bright future for drug discovery and development

11 November 2005 | By Dr Frank Straube, Biomarker Expert, Novartis Pharma AG

High content imaging (HCI), the combination of automated fluorescence microscopy with quantitative image analysis, has been opening new dimensions in cytometry. This article gives an overview on the growing spectrum of applications and an outlook on the future use of this still rapidly developing technology.

Mass Spectrometry: another tool from the PAT toolbox

11 November 2005 | By Steve Doherty and Aaron Garrett, Manufacturing Science and Technology, Mark LaPack, Process Research and Development, Eli Lilly and Co.

Optical techniques can not address every application need, so the well-equipped PAT toolbox must include a broad array of technologies. One analytical tool that has been less-published but no less useful than the optical methods is mass spectrometry. This article provides a brief review of some of the published uses…

Applications in bioprocesses and biotechnology

11 November 2005 | By ,

Raman spectroscopy is a highly versatile tool that provides chemical fingerprints from biological material that can be interpreted using chemometrics and machine learning. In combination this powerful approach is being developed for the quantitative determination of multiple determinands in bioprocesses and for the characterisation of microorganisms.

Why is thermal analysis important to the industry?

11 November 2005 | By Dr Paul G. Royall, Lecturer in Pharmaceutics, School of Chemical Sciences & Pharmacy University of East Anglia, See-wah Jai Tang, Pharmaceutical Science Research Division, King’s College London

Thermal analysis equipment can be found in nearly all of the analytical, development, formulation and QA laboratories within the pharmaceutical industry. However, these work horse instruments are learning to run faster and to analyse an ever more varied field of samples.

The current state of PAT in freeze drying

11 November 2005 | By Michael Wiggenhorn, Gerhard Winter, Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University and Ingo Presser, Boehringer Ingelheim

Freeze drying is a widely used method to stabilise protein pharmaceuticals. The stability of proteins and the biological activity can be influenced by several factors, which may lead to conformational changes and to denaturation, aggregation or absorption to surfaces1.

Microbial detection in mammalian cell culture systems

11 November 2005 | By Amy McDaniel, Ph.D., QC Manager, Microbial Science & Technology, Wyeth Biotech

Timely results for microbial bioburden monitoring of in-process cell culture samples are critical to the production process for recombinant proteins and other biopharmaceutical products.

The promise and pitfalls

22 August 2005 | By Craig S. Mickanin, Research Investigator and Mark A. Labow, Executive Director, Genomic and Proteomic Sciences, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research

Perhaps the most significant technological advancement in the study of gene function in the post-genome era has been the discovery that RNA interference (RNAi) can be exploited for depletion of endogenous mRNA in mammalian cells. As the pharmaceutical industry has fallen under intense pressure to both identify and validate high-quality…

Biomarkers of efficacy and safety

22 August 2005 | By Dr Graham R Betton, Senior Principal Scientist, Safety Assessment, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals

This article reviews the types of biomarkers currently available and approaches to discovering new biomarkers.

Plasma protein biomarker discovery

22 August 2005 | By Gilbert S. Omenn, M.D.,Ph.D University of Michigan

Less than a week after Nature and Science published the special issues on the ’blueprint‘ for the human genome sequence 15-16 Feb, 2001, the Financial Times of 21 February, 2001, ran a major article about proteomics, calling proteins “the real stuff of life”. Proteins are, indeed, the effector molecules for…

Initiatives from Spain

22 August 2005 | By José M Mato, Isabel Pérez-Mato, Félix Elortza, CIC bioGUNE and Julio Font, Noray Bioinformatics, S.L

The availability of the complete sequence of some model organism genomes, including the human genome, offers new opportunities for biological research. The goal is to establish technology to identify all the proteins involved in a particular biological process and the interactions between them.

Analysing the monographs

22 August 2005 | By Erwin Adams, Ann Van Schepdael and Jos Hoogmartens, Laboratory for Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Drug Analysis, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium

The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.)1 monographs are subject to regular adaptation in order to cope with progressing quality requirements. This contribution outlines the evolution in analytical requirements and techniques in monographs for organic substances. These monographs generally carry the subheadings definition, characters, identification, tests, assay and impurities.