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The importance of being small: miniaturisation of freeze drying equipment

18 August 2017 | By ,

Developmental activities for freeze-dried products are dictated by the limited availability and high cost of newly developed active compounds, and by Quality-by-Design requirements. Laboratory-scale freeze dryers used for formulation and process development show an excessive variety of designs and instrumentation concepts, making scale-up activities a challenge. The development of miniaturised…

The people factor: investigating the gown

1 August 2017 | By

An effective environmental monitoring programme is designed to estimate the microbial content of the room’s air and surfaces (by incident rate, against alert and action levels, and by assessment of different species) for operations performed within a cleanroom or controlled environment.

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